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Evidence Based Practice in the Treatment of Addiction Treatment of Addiction. Steve Hanson

Evidence-Based Practices in Washington State - Alcohol and Drug

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e Based Practice in the Treatment of Addiction Treatment of Addiction.

Steve Hanson...

Description

Evidence Based Practice in the Treatment of Addiction Treatment of Addiction Steve Hanson

History of Addiction Treatment • Incarceration

What We Learned These didn’t work Needed to change from a “moral model” Emergence of the Disease Model Advances in understanding of neurochemistry’s role in addiction • Drug Court Model • Evidence Based Practices

Evidence-based practices (EBPs) refer to interventions that have been rigorously tested,

NIDA Principles of Effective Treatment 1.

No single treatment is appropriate for all 2.

Treatment needs to be readily available 3.

Effective treatment attends to the multiple needs of the individual 4.

Treatment plans must be assessed and modified continually to meet changing needs 5.

Remaining in treatment for an adequate period of time is critical for treatment effectiveness

Principles of Effective Treatment 6.

Counseling and other behavioral therapies are critical components of effective treatment 7.

Medications are an important element of treatment for many patients 8.

Co-existing disorders should be treated in an integrated way 9.

Medical detox is only the first stage of treatment 10.

Treatment does not need to be voluntary to be effective

Principles of Effective Treatment 11.

Possible drug use during treatment must be monitored continuously 12.

Treatment programs should assess for HIV/AIDS,

Hepatitis B & C,

Tuberculosis and other infectious diseases and help clients modify at-risk behaviors 13.

Recovery can be a long-term process and frequently requires multiple episodes of treatment

No Single Treatment is Appropriate for All

Evidence-Based Practices for Alcohol Treatment • • • • •

Brief intervention Social skills training Motivational enhancement Community reinforcement Behavioral contracting Miller et al.,

In R.

Hester & W.

Miller (eds.) Handbook of Alcoholism Treatment Approaches: Effective Alternatives.

(2nd ed.,

Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Scientifically-Based Approaches to Addiction Treatment • • • • • • •

Cognitive–behavioral interventions Community reinforcement Motivational enhancement therapy 12-step facilitation Contingency management Pharmacological therapies Systems treatment

What Does All This Mean

? • We have an opportunity to improve treatment services.

• There are effective and cost-efficient treatments available for alcohol and drug dependence.

Moral Reconation Therapy (MRT) 2.

Living in Balance 3.

Motivational Interviewing 4.

Recovery Training & Self Help 5.

TCU Mapping Enhanced Counseling 6.

Twelve Step Facilitation Therapy 7.

Community Reinforcement Approach

Top 7 Evidenced Based Approaches for Adolescents 1.

Brief Strategic Family Therapy (BSFT) Family Behavior Therapy (FBT) Moral Reconation Therapy (MRT) Multidimensional Family Therapy (MDFT) Family Support Network Multi-Systemic Therapy (MST) for Juvenile offenders Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach (A-CRA)

Not Evidenced Based 1.

Generic Counseling AOD Education Confrontational Interventions Psychodynamic Therapy Solution-focused Therapy Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction 7.

Acupuncture

Effective Treatment for Offenders 1.

Standardized Interventions (use of manuals) 2.

Contingency-based Treatment 3.

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: Moral Reconation Therapy 4.

Relapse Prevention: Relapse Prevention Therapy (RPT) 5.

Co-occurring Disorder Treatment: Seeking Safety 6.

Adjunctive Medications: Naltrexone

A Big Resource National Registry of Evidencedbased Programs and Practices:

The Best way to choose an EBP

It’s listed in NREPP matches your desired outcomes was tested on a population similar to yours

Other EBP Sources 1.

Based on valid theory of change

Similar to other interventions in federal registry or journal

Documentation of multiple successful prior implementation

Reviewed and approved by experts

Manualized Treatment Protocols

www.kap.samhsa.gov/products/manuals

Best Things About Manualized Treatment Protocols • Counselors and Clients like the structure and consistency • Easy to use • They help focus a session

A Free Resource for Treatment Manuals

SAMHSA’s National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information (NCADI):

Limitations With Using Treatment Manuals • •

Can be restrictive Need to incorporate personal style and creativity Need to provide flexibility

Cognitive Behavioral Interventions

The Facts and Figures •

A 1991 RCT comparing urban severe cocaine abusers receiving CBT versus those receiving interpersonal therapy found that those receiving CBT were more likely to: complete treatment sustain abstinence during treatment sustain abstinence immediately after treatment continue gains at 1 year follow-up

Three Evidenced-Based CBT Interventions

Matrix Model 2.

Moral Reconation Therapy (MRT®).

Thinking for a Change (www.nicic.org/) – public domain

CBT Theory

Good Thinking

Good Outcome

Not So Good Thinking

Bad Outcome

EVENT

Thinking Errors Hanson

! I want to see you in my office first thing tomorrow

YOU’RE FIRED

Relapse Prevention Plan

Do program participants have relapse prevention plans completed before leaving the first phase of treatment

The Facts and Figures

A 2008 meta-analysis of five relapse prevention effectiveness studies found RP was 2nd most effective intervention (behind CBT combined with contingency management)

Relapse Prevention Therapy (RPT)  

Understand relapse as a process Identify and cope effectively with high-risk situations such as negative emotional states,

and social pressure Cope with urges and craving Implement damage control procedures during a lapse to minimize negative consequences Stay engaged in treatment even after a relapse Learn how to create a more balanced lifestyle

Treatment seeks to enhance

? • Insight – What to change

? • Skills – How to change

Motivation

Motivation • Motivation is key to making and sustaining a long term change.

motivation waxes and wanes • Increasing motivation helps prevent relapse • Drug Courts provide external (incentives & sanctions) motivators • Participants will hopefully become internally motivated (it’s the right thing to do,

I feel good when I’m clean,

Changing people places & things I can hang out With my old friends And not chase the fox

HEY GUYS

Insight • You only know what you only know.

• Participants do not automatically know what to do to stay sober and why.

• Helping them understand behavioral patterns.

• Getting them to think outside of their “box”

Your surgeon

I’ve never done one of these before.

But I did talk about it in group… and I stayed at a Holiday Inn Express

Skill building • Wanting to be able to do something doesn’t mean you can do it.

• Knowing what to do doesn’t mean you’ll do it (right) when it counts.

• Keys to skill building: – Practice,

practice – Reward the behavior you are trying to encourage

Treatment must address

Behavior Medical / Biological Affect / Emotional Social / Family Cognitive Spiritual

People are Complex Multiple treatment interventions capable of addressing each of these domains will be required for effective outcomes.

Medical Behavior

Affect

Social/ Family

Cognitive

Spirituality

Multi-systemic treatment

“Treatment should be tailored to the needs of the individual and guided by an individualized treatment plan that is developed in consultation with the patient” American Society of Addiction Medicine’s Patient Placement Criteria

What works

? For the BEST OUTCOMES Provide a Puzzle of Evidence Based Approaches

Motivational Enhancement

Cognitive Behavioral Continuing Care

Community Reinforcement Case Management

Pharmacological Interventions

Motivational approaches • Motivational approaches focus on engaging substance users in considering,

initiating and continuing substance abuse treatment while stopping their use of alcohol and other drugs.

• “Being where the client is” – what they are motivated by.

• Motivational approaches involve combining “motivational interviewing” with a stages-ofchange model.

pre-contemplation regarding change,

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) approaches • A research review of meta-analyses found that cognitive behavioral approaches consistently appear to be among the most effective treatment therapy for substance abusers (Taxman,

1999).

• CBT approaches suggest that unless offenders’ faulty thinking is addressed,

there is a reduced likelihood of long-term change.

• The three main cognitive models now utilized by criminal justice agencies are Reasoning and Rehabilitation (R&R),

Thinking for a Change and Moral Reconation Therapy (MRT®).

Community Reinforcement Approach plus Vouchers • Uses the community to reward non-using behavior so that the client makes healthy lifestyle changes • High levels of satisfaction in drug and alcohol free lifestyles are needed to compete with the reinforcement derived from substance use and the substance-using lifestyle • The CRA approach is analogous to helping a child conclude—through experience,

not talking—that it’s more satisfying to be good than to be naughty.

Rewarding the Behavior

Clinical Case Management Goals – Help ensure that the important needs of the participants are being responded to,

and that they maintain contact with the various providers.

Assessment Planning Linking Monitoring Advocacy

Case management of other ancillary & ongoing services • • • • • • •

Wellness practices Acupuncture Nutrition Stress management Smoking cessation Health/Dental Care 12-Step,

Self-Help,

Recovery Maintenance

Pharmacological Approaches Goals – Provide: – relief from withdrawal symptoms,

– prevent drugs from working,

These actions are helpful in reducing relapse and increasing retention in programs

Pharmacological Approaches Methadone – Opiate addiction – reduces craving,

helps restore normal functioning Buprenorphine – similar to methadone,

may be prescribed by an MD with special training) Acamprosate – reduction of alcohol cravings Antabuse – produces adverse reaction with alcohol use

Pharmacological Approaches Naltrexone/Nalmefene – stops opiates from working,

changes alcohol action for some – reduction in relapse Neurontin – helps with insomnia in early recovery Clonidine – reduction of withdrawal symptoms – possible reduction in cravings Baclofen – possible reduction in cocaine cravings

Methadone Study 

plus transfer to MMT post release Assessed at intake and at 1,

The Results 

Assessment: ASI/clinical interview,

drug test for opiates and cocaine,

self report of criminal activity and employment Those in MMT remained in treatment significantly longer than others.

Those who began in MMT in prison were retained the longest.

Those in MMT tested positive for drugs significantly less often than others.

Those who began MMT in prison had the lowest positive rates.

THE END Thanks