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Configure Dynamic DNS on a Virtual Access Router...

Description

How to Configure Dynamic DNS on a Virtual Access Router

Issue

Table of contents

About this document ...............................................................................

Scope .....................................................................................................

Readership .............................................................................................

Terminology ...........................................................................................

Introduction ............................................................................................

How does the router implement Dynamic DNS

? .....................................

2.1.1

Overview ...............................................................................................

2.1.2

Address updates .....................................................................................

2.1.3

VRRP support .........................................................................................

Configuring the router .............................................................................

Configuring Dynamic DNS on a Virtual Access router .............................

3.1.1

Configure the Dynamic DNS system ..........................................................

3.1.2

Configure Dynamic DNS entries ................................................................

3.1.3

Defining a custom Dynamic DNS provider .................................................10

Diagnostics ............................................................................................

Dynamic DNS statistics ........................................................................

Trace analyzer ......................................................................................

Tracing using the command line ...........................................................

4.3.1 5

Command line syntax ............................................................................14 Interactive commands ...........................................................................

Update Dynamic DNS............................................................................

Copyright 2012 Virtual Access (Irl) Ltd.

This material is protected by copyright.

No part of this material may be reproduced,

or altered without the written consent of Virtual Access.

All rights reserved.

Third party trademarks are the property of the third parties.

How to Configure Dynamic DNS on a Virtual Access Router Issue: 1.0

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Service Level Agreement

Domain Name Resolution

Dyn DNS

Dynamic Domain Name Resolution

Dynamic Domain Name Resolution

How to Configure Dynamic DNS on a Virtual Access Router Issue: 1.0

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Users can then contact a machine,

with a DNS name rather than a dynamic IP address

Overview An account is required with the provider,

and one or more domain names are associated with that account.

A dynamic DNS client on the router monitors the public IP address associated with an interface and whenever the IP address changes,

the client notifies the DNS provider to update the corresponding domain name.

When the DNS provider responds to queries for the domain name,

typically a minute or two at most,

on the response so that it is not cached.

Updates to the domain name are thus visible throughout the whole Internet with little delay.

Note: most providers impose restrictions on how updates are handled: updating when no change of address occurred is considered abusive and may result in an account being blocked.

Sometimes,

addresses must be refreshed periodically,

to show that they are still in active use.

2.1.2

Address updates The DDNS client will support two types of address update: updating the public address associated with the default route,

or updating the address bound to a particular interface.

The difference between these is best illustrated by example.

Consider a router with an ADSL link configured on ppp-1 and a backup 3G link on ppp-2.

When the ADSL link is offline,

the backup link becomes active.

Now consider binding the DNS client to the default route.

Only a single domain name is needed,

let's say ‘va1-test-provider.org’.

When the default route points to ppp-1,

the domain name is updated to reflect ppp-1's IP address.

If ppp-1 goes down and the default route switches to ppp-2,

the domain name is updated to reflect ppp-2's address.

When ppp-1 becomes active again,

the domain name changes back to ppp-1's address.

In this scenario,

the single domain name ‘va1-test-provider.org’ will always route to the router,

regardless of whether the main ADSL link or backup 3G link is in use.

For most purposes,

this will be the preferred behaviour.

For some applications,

it may be preferable to distinguish between the two interfaces.

For example,

the 3G interface may be associated with a private network used purely for outof-band management,

while still being assigned a dynamic IP address when a connection is made.

In this case,

we can assign separate DNS names to each interface.

‘va1-test-adslprovider.org’ can be associated with either the default route or directly with interface ppp-1.

‘va-test-3g-provider.org’ can be associated with interface ppp-2.

How to Configure Dynamic DNS on a Virtual Access Router Issue: 1.0

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If ppp-1 goes offline,

no change is made to the DNS entry for ‘va1-test-adslprovider.org’

the associated IP address simply no longer works,

since there is no route to the router Whenever ppp-2 comes online,

‘va1-test.3g.provider.org’ is updated with the ppp-2 IP address.

If ppp-2 is offline,

then the domain name still exists but again will not be routable.

2.1.3

VRRP support DDNS functionality on the router contains support for interacting with VRRP.

This is provided by a configurable option.

If the ‘Update Only If VRRP Master’ configuration option is set for a domain entry,

then any event that normally causes that domain name to be updated will be ignored if the router is not a VRRP master,

If the router is a VRRP master,

then domain name updates take place as usual.

In addition,

whenever the router attains VRRP master status,

any domain names configured in this way will perform a forced update to their IP address to reflect its current setting.

Several routers participating in a VRRP group can each have a Dynamic DNS client active for the same domain name,

and whenever the master status moves to a new router,

the domain name is guaranteed to follow it.

How to Configure Dynamic DNS on a Virtual Access Router Issue: 1.0

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Before you can access the internal web server and start configurations,

you must ensure that your PC has the correct networking set up.

When your router is correctly connected to your PC,

type fast.start into the URL line of your browser to display the start page.

Figure 1: The start page Access the Fast Start Wizard by clicking the Fast.Start icon on the start page of the embedded web.

The Fast Start Wizard will guide you through a series of forms that you must complete to configure your router.

click Advanced on the start page.

The Advanced menu page appears.

How to Configure Dynamic DNS on a Virtual Access Router Issue: 1.0

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Figure 2: The Advanced menu showing expert view In the left-hand menu,

3.1.1

Configure the Dynamic DNS system In the Expert View menu,

-> dyn dns

-> system.

The Dynamic DNS page appears.

Figure 3: The Dynamic DNS system page Field

Description

Command Line

Enabled

Enables or disables the IP address.

Set DNS Dynamic client enabled,yes

Enables Dynamic DNS

Disables Dynamic DNS

Table 1: The dynamic DNS page field,

3.1.2

Configure Dynamic DNS entries Up to 10 dynamic DNS client entries are supported,

each corresponding to one domain name.

Several domain names can be associated with the same interface if desired.

How to Configure Dynamic DNS on a Virtual Access Router Issue: 1.0

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Since it is common to use a single provider to manage multiple domain names,

the client allows the provider information for a particular entry to be inherited from the previous entry rather than having to be re-entered.

This action is controlled by setting the "Provider Type" field to Previous.

The provider address,

username and password are then all inherited from the most recent configured preceding entry.

The special provider type 'Custom' uses the same update mechanism as DynDns.org,

and is provided merely to make it more obvious that a custom update provider has been selected.

It will not fill in a default URL,

so failing to provide one will generate an error rather than an erroneous update to DynDns.com.

3.1.2.1

Configure a Dynamic DNS entry In the Expert View menu,

-> dyn dns

The Dynamic DNS Entries list page appears.

Select add to add an entry.

Figure 4: The Dynamic entries list

How to Configure Dynamic DNS on a Virtual Access Router Issue: 1.0

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Field

Enabled

Domain Name

Description

Command Line

Indicates whether this dynamic DNS entry is configured or not.

Enables an entry.

Disables an entry.

The fully qualified domain name associated with this entry.

This is the name to update with the new IP address as needed.

Set DNS Dynamic client enabled,yes Set DNS Dynamic client entry Domain Name 1,

The interface to monitor for updates.

Interface

Refresh Rate

Monitor the interface associated with the current default route.

Monitor the interface selected.

This entry is not associated with any interface.

This entry can only be updated manually using the Update DDNS command

this may be appropriate for special scenarios where a script monitors some activity and triggers the update.

Determines how often to refresh this entry,

This is no longer required by most providers.

If configured to a non-zero value,

an update will be forced for the entry after that number of days has expired,

even if the IP address has not changed.

When set to yes,

only update this entry if at least one Ethernet interface on the router is currently a VRRP master.

Update Only If VRRP Master

Only update this entry if at least one Ethernet interface on the router is currently a VRRP master.

Set DNS Dynamic client entry interface 1

Set DNS Dynamic client entry Refresh Rate 1

Set DNS Dynamic client entry update Only When VRRP Master 1

Always update this entry regardless of VRRP state.

Governs how account authentication and name updating is carried out.

Most DNS providers will conform to one of the provider types listed here.

Previous

Dyn.com Provider Type

This entry uses the same update mechanism as the most recent configured preceding entry.

Uses Dyn.com update parameters.

Dyn.comNoSSL

Uses HTTP instead of HTTPS for the update.

This is less memory intensive,

and makes it easier to view the update traffic with a network sniffer for debug purposes,

DynDns.org

Uses Dyn.com update parameters.

How to Configure Dynamic DNS on a Virtual Access Router Issue: 1.0

Set DNS Dynamic client entry Provider type 1

© Virtual Access Ltd.

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Custom

Read section 3.1.3 for more information.

The fully qualified HTTP URL where you set update requests.

If left empty,

this is automatically inferred from the selected Provider Type.

Only configure this when using a non-standard provider.

The URL should begin with http or https and may include an optional port number after the domain name Read section 3.1.3 for more information.

The HTTP parameter string to be supplied to the given URL.

Read section 3.1.3 for more information.

Update URL

Update Parameters

Password

3.1.3

DNS Dynamic Client Entry Update URL 1

DNS Dynamic Client Entry Update Parameters 1

The response text must begin with good to indicate a successful update.

nochg for an unnecessary update.

Anything else will be treated as an error.

Check Response

Username

A special entry which has no associated default provider URL.

In this case,

an Update URL must be provided.

DNS Dynamic Client Entry Check Response

A 200 response from the remote server is sufficient to indicate a successful update.

set DNS Dynamic Client Entry Username = 1,

set DNS Dynamic Client Entry The password to use for authenticating domain Encrypted Password = name updates with the selected provider.

Table 2: The DNS entry page fields,

descriptions and command lines The user name to use for authenticating domain updates with the selected provider.

Defining a custom Dynamic DNS provider If you need to update a DNS provider that is not natively supported by the DNS client on the router,

you can use the advanced settings to directly configure such a client.

Typically,

you configure the DNS Provider Type to 'Custom' and then define Provider URL and Provider Parameters setting specific to that provider.

If you select a Provider Type other than Custom,

DynDns.org,

you can leave either or both the Provider URL and Provider Parameters fields empty and they will inherit the default values from the selected provider.

This is convenient if,

you want to update the default update URL for a particular provider,

but keep the update parameters the same.

The update URL is defined as a fully qualified HTTP or HTTPS URL to the published update site for the provider,

without any appended parameters.

Do not include any embedded username or password information in the URL.

Define the username and password using the Username and Password configuration options.

For example,

the HTTP and HTTPS update URLs for DynDns.org are: http://members.dyndns.org/nic/update https://members.dyndns.org/nic/update

How to Configure Dynamic DNS on a Virtual Access Router Issue: 1.0

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The URL may include an optional port number after the domain name.

For example: http://members.dyndns.org:8245/nic/update The parameters field is appended to the update URL and contains the details of the domain name being updated,

It can contain special variable names in braces which will be replaced by the corresponding value when performing the update: {ip} {domain} {username} {password}

New IP address Domain name being updated Username configured for this provider Password configured for this provider

Warning: the password is entered in plain text For example,

the update parameter list for DynDns.org is: hostname={domain}&myip={ip}&wildcard=NOCHG&mx=NOCHG&backmx=NOCHG The update URL and parameters list are combined to make a full URL,

any needed variable substitution is carried out,

and then a HTTP GET is performed on the resulting URL to perform the update.

How to Configure Dynamic DNS on a Virtual Access Router Issue: 1.0

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status and SLA monitoring capabilities.

The status and diagnostics tools are provided as a series of Java applets.

In the top menu,

In the Operations menu,

Figure 5: The Dynamic DNS status page These commands display the current metrics for the dynamic DNS client.

Command

Description

Hidden

Show DDNS

Displays a summary currently configured dynamic DNS client entries

Show DDNS ALL

Displays a detailed list of all currently configured dynamic DNS client entries

Show DDNS [1 – 10]

Displays a detailed view of a single dynamic DNS client entry (whether configured or not)

Show DDNS Providers

Lists all available DNS provider names,

Show DDNS Status

Displays current status of the DDNS client (idle,

Show DDNS Name [1-10] Displays the domain name associated with entry X,

Table 3: Dynamic client commands

How to Configure Dynamic DNS on a Virtual Access Router Issue: 1.0

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To view the Trace Analyzer,

In the Advanced menu,

On the Diagnostics page,

The Trace Analyzer pop-up window appears.

To view the Dynamic DNS traces check Custom Events and then click Select.

The Select Events to Trace pop-up window appears.

In the Events Available window,

scroll to the bottom of the list and select DNSP.

DNSP appears in the Selected Events window.

Click ADD.

How to Configure Dynamic DNS on a Virtual Access Router Issue: 1.0

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Figure 6: The select event classes to trace pop-up window

read the quick guide ‘Using the CLI to Manage an SMG’ Tracing via the command line is more flexible than using the trace analyzer as you can specify the event severity and use the all class event to trace all event classes.

Command line tracing also allows you to trace to a log file for examining events over a protracted period of time.

If you enter no event severity,

all event severities are displayed.

If you chose an event severity,

all events of the chosen severity and greater are displayed.

4.3.1

Command line syntax To stop tracing,

entering – (minus) followed by the event class will stop tracing for this event class.

Entering – (minus) on its own will stop all tracing.

Syntax

Description

Starts tracing DNS Proxy events (includes Dynamic DNS events)

Stops DNS Proxy tracing

Table 4: The command line tracing syntax and their descriptions

How to Configure Dynamic DNS on a Virtual Access Router Issue: 1.0

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Interactive commands 5.1 Update Dynamic DNS The command line UPDATE can be used to allow some or all of the entries associated with a dynamic DNS name to be updated immediately rather than whenever the interface IP address appears to have changed.

In each case,

the optional –f parameter can be used to force an update,

even if the IP address appears to have not changed since the last update.

This may be considered abusive by the DNS provider,

so should be used with caution.

Command

Description

Update DDNS [-f] ALL

Updates all currently configured dynamic DNS names.

Update DDNS [-f] portname

Updates all dynamic DNS entries associated with the given port name

if the default route currently routes out this port,

then default entries are also included.

Update DDNS [-f] number Updates the dynamic DNS entry associated with table entry 'number',

Update DDNS [-f] domainname

Invokes a dynamic DNS update for the DDNS entry with a Domain Name matching the given name.

For example,

Update DDNS va1-test.dyndns.org.

Table 5: Update Dynamic DNS commands and descriptions

How to Configure Dynamic DNS on a Virtual Access Router Issue: 1.0

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